By Ulrich L. Lehner and Michael Printy (editors)
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Additional resources for A Companion to the Catholic Enlightenment in Europe
146 See Vogel, Der Untergang der Gesellschaft Jesu. 147 For an overview of historiographical scholarship between Humanism and the Enlightenment, see Ulrich Muhlack, Geschichtswissenschaft im Humanismus und in der Aufklärung (Munich: 1991). For a critique of Muhlack see Benz, Zwischen Tradition und Kritik, passim. 148 But why did critical thinking in Catholic circles start so abruptly in the last quarter of the 17th century? Certainly, Spinoza’s insights in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1670), especially about the historicity of the Bible, were one reason.
Entwicklungslinien zur modernen Welt im Geheimbundwesen des 18. ), Aufklärung und Geheimgesellschaften (Munich: 1989); Jérôme Rousse-Lacordaire, Rome et les Francs-Maçons: Histoire d’un conflit (Paris: 1996). The Benedictine Abbey of Melk even had its own lodge. Cf. Albert, “Die Orden am Vorabend der Säkularisation,” 109. Jose Antonio Ferrer-Benimeli, Les Archives secrètes du Vatican et la franc-maçonnerie. Histoire d’une condamnation pontificale (Paris: 2002), 728–854 lists 45 clergymen (in the 18th century), who founded lodges and 68 who became Grandmasters.
173 40 ulrich l. 2. Communication networks of the Catholic Enlightenment Like the secular Enlightenment, the Catholic Enlightenment was also eager to build up new structures of communication, to understand and to be understood. ) can be seen as integral parts of this communication process. 177 The 18th century was also the century of rising literacy, a factor that eroded exclusive ecclesiastical competency in cultural affairs. 179 However, the importance of salons, taverns, coffeehouses, public libraries and private reading circles are being increasingly acknowledged for the Cath- 177 Schlögl, Glaube und Religion in der Säkularisierung, 63–72.