Read e-book online A History of Philosophy [Vol VIII]. Modern philosophy, PDF

By Frederick Copleston

Conceived initially as a significant presentation of the improvement of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A historical past Of Philosophy has journeyed a ways past the modest objective of its writer to common acclaim because the most sensible heritage of philosophy in English.

Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of mammoth erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate concerning the life of God and the potential for metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient diet of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with such a lot of history's nice thinkers was once reduced to simplistic caricatures. Copleston set out to redress the inaccurate by way of writing a whole historical past of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and intellectual pleasure -- and person who supplies full place to every philosopher, featuring his suggestion in a beautifully rounded demeanour and displaying his links to those that went earlier than and to those that came after him.

The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a background of philosophy that's not going ever to be exceeded. Thought journal summed up the overall contract between students and scholars alike while it reviewed Copleston's A background of Philosophy as "broad-minded and aim, complete and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we can't suggest [it] too highly."

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Extra resources for A History of Philosophy [Vol VIII]. Modern philosophy, empiricism, idealism, and pragmatism in Britain and America

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And in this case only induction can be accounted real inference, inasmuch as 'the conclusion or induction embraces more than is contained in the premisses'. 1 When the conclusion is precontained in the premisses inference makes no real advance in knowledge. And this is true of syllogistic inference. For 'it is universally allowed that a syllogism is vicious if there be anything more in the conclusion than was assumed in the premisses. '1 If this were all that Mill had to say on the matter, it would be natural to conclude that for him there are two distinct types of logic.

368 (II. S. s. 4), BRITISH EMPIRICISM J. S. MILL: LOGIC AND EMPIRICISM empiricism' ,I 'empiricism' being obviously employed in a depreciatory sense. And similar remarks occur elsewhere. But though Mill certainly rejects empiricism in the sense in which he understands the term, in the sense, that is to say, of bad and slovenly generalization, of a procedure which bears little relation to scientific method or methods, he equally certainly takes his stand with Locke in holding that the material of all our knowledge is provided by experience.

What exists is the individual, though the individual character and personality cannot be fully developed apart from social relations. 4. The topics of civil liberty and government are obviously connected. Freedom of the will or liberty in a psychological sense is discussed by Mill in his A System of Logic, under the general heading of the logic of the mental sciences, and in his A n Examination of Sir WiUiam Hamilton's Philosophy. But as interest in the problem of freedom of the will is generally prompted by its bearing on ethics and on questions, whether moral or legal, about responsibility, it seems permissible to take the problem out of the general logical setting in which Mill actually discusses it and to consider it here.

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