By Richard Bohart & Lionel Stange
Read or Download A revision of the genus Zethus Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) PDF
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Additional resources for A revision of the genus Zethus Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae)
The ratio of C28/C29-phytoecdysteroids in intact and in in vitro cloned plants was substantially different. A. reptans roots were established to be the site of ecdysteroid biosynthesis. Based on the overall data obtained both under in vivo and in vitro conditions, the existence of two major metabolic pathways in A. reptans was pro- 1 Phytoecdysteroids: Diversity, Biosynthesis and Distribution 25 posed (Camps and Coll, 1993), involving side-chain dealkylation and differing in hydroxylation at C-5, and resulting in two groups of biogenetically related C29/C28/ C27 compounds (cyasterone/29-norcyasterone/20E and sengosterone/29-norsengosterone/polB), which differ in the absence or presence of an OH-group at C-5.
The first large-scale survey was conducted by Imai et al. (1969) who assessed methanolic extracts of 1,056 taxonomically diverse species and 351 crude drug preparations by means of the lepidopteran Chilo suppressalis ‘dipping’ test. They found that 24 (from 47) pteridophytes, 7 (from 42) gymnosperms and 30 (from 967) angiosperms were positive. The publication names and presents data only for the positive species. Hikino et al. (1973) examined methanolic extracts of 283 species (871 specimens) of Japanese ferns by means of the dipteran Sarcophaga peregrina test, whereby the plant extract is injected into the abdomen of ligated last instar larvae to see if pupariation is induced (positive response).
1990) (Fig. 7). Phytoecdysteroids are believed to represent a chemical protection of plants against phytophagous insects (and soil nematodes). It is therefore logical to expect that their production will be enhanced by mechanical wounding or insect attack. , 1998, 1999). , 1998). Fig. 6 Comparative ability of control (panel a) and heat-shocked (panel b) prothalli of Polypodium vulgare to convert 25-hydroxycholesterol (25C) into ecdysteroids (E and 20E). , 1999) 22 L. Dinan et al. Fig. , 1990) Could feed-back mechanisms be responsible for the inhibition of ecdysteroid production in non-accumulating plant species?