By P. D. Evans, V. B. Wigglesworth
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Additional resources for Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 19
The nerve endings are capable of releasing proctolin when depolarized in the presence of calcium. 3). Another problem arises in considering the amount of proctolin necessary to achieve physiologically effective concentration. If we assume that the released proctolin is evenly dissolved in the blood volume, there is probably sufficient to reach a threshold concentration only if all the proctolin contained in the organism is released at once. , 1984 for further discussion). Further work on the hormonal functions of proctolin is required.
J . Neurosci. 4,1300-1311. Selverston, A. , Russel, D. , Miller, J. P. and King, D. (1976). The stomatogastric nervous system: structure and function of a small neural network. Prog. Neurobiol. 7,215-290. Siwicki, K. K. and Bishop, C. A. (1985). Mapping of proctolin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous systems of lobster and crayfish. J . Neurosci. In press. Starratt, A. N. and Brown, B. E. (1975). Structure of the pentapeptide proctolin, a proposed neurotransmitter in insects. Life Sci. 17,1253-1256.
1983). 4 PROCTOLIN AS A NEUROHORMONE There is little doubt that proctolin functions as a neurohormone in arthropods. Most of the evidence is anatomical and we have as yet no specific instances that clearly demonstrate a hormonal role. , 1984). The pericardial organ is a well known crustacean neurosecretory structure, well placed for providing a means of releasing hormone into the circulation. Proctolin is found in what appears to be nerve endings in this structure. These endings are probably derived from neurosecretory cells with somata in the CNS.