By Peter Evans
Advances in Insect body structure is devoted to publishing eclectic volumes containing entire and in-depth studies on all points of insect body structure. First released in 1963, it's a vital reference resource for invertebrate physiologists and neurobiologists, entomologists, zoologists, and bug biochemists. In 1999, the Institute for clinical details published figures exhibiting that Advances in Insect body structure has an effect issue of 4.5, putting it moment within the hugely aggressive class of Entomology. Key good points * This quantity comprises 5 experiences at the following issues: * The Drosophila melanogaster Malpighian tubule * Plasticity within the insect worried approach * impartial amino acid absorption within the midgut of lepidopteran larvae * The unpaired median neurons of bugs * FMRFamide similar peptides: a multifunctional relatives of structurally similar neuropeptides in bugs
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Additional resources for Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 28
By contrast, the story seemed similar for Calliphora and Drosophila, where stellate cells were labelled (Meulemans and De Loof, 1992). The authors concluded that excretion might be through the principal cells, but there might be secondary storage excretion in the stellate cells. Our results, however, were different. , 1997). , 1997). In general then, it seems safe to conclude that ± irrespective of its ultimate fate ± there is active transport of organic cationic dyes through the principal cells of the main segment.
1997; Dow, 1999). It has proved possible to replicate this tubule phenotype with a different subunit of the V-ATPase (Fig. 7), resident on a different chromosome, and so establish the generality of the prediction (Dow, 1999). Although this point has been laboured, it is because this tubule phenotype is the ®rst time that a defect in a plasma-membrane V-ATPase has been documented in any animal, and it provides the only available phenotypic screen for mutations, either in those V-ATPase subunits that act in an epithelial context, or for the various cytoskeletal, chaperoning and accessory proteins that allow them to perform this role.
Furthermore, insect tubules excrete cAMP and cGMP in response to increased intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotides. It has also been shown that agents which raise intracellular calcium Ca2 i levels also modulate tubule ¯uid secretion rates. These studies have received less attention than studies into the role of cAMP, for example, as until recently, it has been dif®cult to make direct measurements of intracellular calcium levels in insect tubules (see below). The signalling pathways and the peptide/hormone modulators of these pathways in tubule ¯uid transport will be described in turn.