By Jonathan Sutherland
African americans at conflict: An Encyclopedia КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: ABC-CLIOАвтор(ы): Jonathan D. SutherlandЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2004Количество страниц: 844ISBN: 1-85109-371-0Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 11.0 mb RapidIfolder zero
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Extra resources for African Americans at War: An Encyclopedia
Many Southern white soldiers displayed the Confederate flag and other symbols associated with racism, and African American troops began to assert their identity, often as derived from an interest in Black Power. S. military. Rather than embracing the armed services and accepting assimilation in what was a hostile foreign land, the men clung to their own identities. For the first time, the armed forces had a considerable proportion of men who wanted to be identified as black. These new African American draftees had been exposed to the activities of the civil rights movements, had witnessed the rioting in cities in the United States, factors that had not necessarily influenced the careerminded African Americans who they had either replaced or overshadowed in terms of sheer numbers.
In May 1863 the Bureau of Colored Troops was created. Not only was it responsible for finding officers, but it also was concerned with the recruitment of African American enlisted men. The officers, fewer than 2 percent of whom were African Americans, would have to pass tests on intelligence, morals, and desire to work with African Americans. It was common for those who passed the first two examinations to be deceitful about the third. The board considered many men whose promotions were blocked for various reasons in their existing regiments.
By that time, no more than 5 percent of enlisted men were African American. The figure dropped slightly in the early 1950s then rose again until 1960 although probably no higher than it was during World War II. Beginning in 1970, however, there was a steep increase in African American enlistment, and by the end of the twentieth century, the estimated figure stood at about 20 percent. The services did not have significant numbers of African American officers until later in World War II. Even then, their numbers represented a fraction of a percent.