By Janet Moore
Moore's creation is short, yet informative. established within the average layout for a zoology textbook, she covers the fundamentals fast and good, after which increases attention-grabbing questions that pertain to no matter what phylum is in query. Having already performed coursework in invertebrates, i discovered this an excellent refresher and nonetheless choked with issues i didn't understand (or had thoroughly forgotten).
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Invertebrates
4b). Study of choanoflagellate proteins reveals the expression of a number of developmental genes which occur in sponges and other Metazoa but in no other organisms (see Chapter 20). Accordingly, the dominant hypothesis at present is that sponges did arise from ancestors shared with those of choanoflagellates, which are therefore seen as the sister group to all Metazoa. 6 How have sponges become so successful? Morphological simplicity and lack of coordination have not prevented sponges from being extremely successful animals, if success is measured by survival, large numbers and very widespread distribution (in the sea).
There is no attempt to identify convergence, which is assumed to be much less common than resemblance due to common ancestry and therefore likely to be eliminated when large numbers of characters are used. This method fails when convergence is common, or when only small numbers of independent characters are available. 3 Cladistic analysis This is also called ‘phylogenetic classification’. e. 1a). 1b). The nodes (branching points) define differences from the primitive condition HOW CAN WE USE MORPHOLOGY TO TRACE PHYLOGENY?
For example, a particular molecule might be compared in a range of insects, shrimps and spiders. Comparison should first show that different insects resembled each other more closely than any of them resembled shrimps or spiders, and might then indicate which two of these three groups are most closely related. In short, molecular characters can be substituted for morphological characters to assess the relatedness of animals, and it is this use of molecules that is introduced in the present chapter, to be discussed further in Chapter 20.