By Helmut van Emden, Richard Harrington
Aphids symbolize one of many world's significant insect pests, inflicting critical fiscal harm to quite a number temperate and tropical plants. those diversity from grain vegetation and brassicas to potato, cotton, vegetable and fruit plants. This booklet presents a definitive reference quantity at the biology of aphids, their pest prestige, and the way to regulate them. It contains nearly 30 in particular commissioned chapters from international specialists, mostly from Europe and North the USA. issues coated diversity from host choice and feeding to circulation and dispersal, and from insecticide resistance to chemical, cultural and organic regulate equipment. There also are a number of case research chapters, on built-in pest administration in particular crops.
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Extra info for Aphids as crop pests
Pisum seems to be a complex of races and subspecies with different host ranges and preferences (Müller, 1980, 1985). Populations attacking peas (Pisum sativum) in Europe consist entirely of green genotypes and have some morphological differences from those colonizing other leguminous crops such as lucerne (Medicago sativa), which may be green or pink. They produce alate sexuparae and males in autumn, and go through a 7 sexual phase on Vicia. , 2003). There seem to be several other speciation events currently in progress in Europe, with populations also in the process of diverging on Lotus and Sarothamnus.
G. siphunculi (secretory organs, but with their precise function still strangely enigmatic); five- or six-segmented antennae composed of two basal segments and a segmented flagellum with a terminal process; two-segmented tarsi with the first segment much shorter than the second; and a cauda, or tail, that is often used for flicking away droplets of honeydew from the anus. These features have been modified, reduced, or secondarily lost in some species, but are evident in most aphids that are pests of crop plants.
Presumably, the ancestral primary host was the rosaceous plant (Spiraea), and Citrus unshiu was acquired more recently as a primary host. This seems to be an example of incipient speciation, as in Via’s populations of A. pisum, but again it is not yet clear whether it is more than a local phenomenon. There are no records of sexual generations on Citrus outside Japan, and it could be that they are unable to survive on other Citrus species. In Japan, alatae migrating from spring populations that had developed from overwintering eggs on Citrus unshiu seemed to be the most important source of infestations of Citrus groves at a time when the main migration from Spiraea had already taken place (Komazaki, 1983).