By Julie Bienertova-vasku
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Extra resources for Appetite: Regulation, Use of Stimulants and Cultural and Biological Influences
REM sleep is controlled by pontic areas such as the locus coeruleus (LC) and reticular formation (RF). Periods of NREM sleep normally precede REM sleep. Initial theories supposed that switching between REM and NREM sleep is driven by monoaminergic (NREM-promoting) and cholinergic (REM-promoting) activity. Current evidence supports a model which attributes REM sleep generation to interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons in the pontine area, resulting in cortical activation and other REMrelated phenomena.
2013a). Food Intake and the Circadian Clock Food Intake as a Zeitgeber The interaction between food intake and the circadian clock is a two-way process. On one hand, the internal clock regulates both metabolism and appetite through various pathways. Its importance may be documented using animals with knocked-out clock genes, which tend to become overweight as well as exhibiting hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia (Bass and Takahashi 2010). , 2009). , 2013a). On the other hand, a great deal of evidence from animal experiments shows that food intake is one of the important zeitgebers which helps reset circadian mechanisms.
Depressive symptoms may also be present in night eating syndrome (NES). Phase shifts in melatonin, leptin, cortisol, ghrelin and insulin secretion have been found in people with NES. However, its diagnosis is based on symptoms rather than on etiopathogenesis, which is likely very heterogeneous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a bidirectional relationship with obesity. On one hand, intermittent airway obstruction occurs mostly in patients with higher body fat, on the other, chronic stress reactions with sympathetic hyperactivity, increased glucocorticoid secretion and shortened sleep time are associated with a high-carbohydrate, high-fat and highcaloric diet, notably in adolescents suffering from OSA.