By A Mlynarczyk
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Additional info for Aspectual Pairing in Polish
In Old and Middle Polish, it occurred in verbs which later replaced it by -ywaor -a-. • Formant -na¸-//-ne¸- that developed from *-no¸It has a word-forming function of building a basic conjugational form, namely past tense theme — for instance, contemporary Polish krzyk-na¸-ł ‘(he) shoutedpf’, d´zwig-na¸-ł ‘(he) moved/moved-pf’; Old Church Slavonic krik-no¸-(l’) ‘(he) shouted-pf’, dvig-no¸-(l’) ‘(he) moved/moved-pf’. Moreover, this formant can derive state verbs from adjectives — for instance, contemporary Polish chud-na¸ł ‘to become skinny-impf’ (derived from chudy ‘skinny’), grub-na¸-ł ‘to become fat-impf’ (derived from gruby ‘fat’).
Krzyk-na¸-´c ‘to shoutpf’, d´zwig-a-´c ‘to move/carry-impf’ vs. d´zwig-na¸-´c ‘to move/carry-pf’; Old Church Slavonic kriˇc-a-ti ‘to shout-impf’ vs. krik-no¸-ti ‘to shout-pf’, dvig-a-ti ‘to move/carry-impf’ vs. dvig-no¸-ti ‘to move/carry-pf’. Let us sum matters up from the perspective of the contemporary Polish system of aspectual pairing, and let us also take a brief look at the prefixes. In the aspectology of new and contemporary Polish, researchers typically talk of ‘the imperfectivising suffix -y/iwa-’, and the perfectivising suffix -na¸- (most people call it the ‘semelfactive’ suffix).
However, the Perfectum did not disappear from the language — as we said, it was expanding (and indeed it established itself as the only past tense form in Polish). Nonetheless, it has lost its aspectual function of denoting an event whose results are relevant at the point of speach. The Perfectum was used with complete and incomplete verbs, and it were the verbs that encoded aspectual meaning — the Perfectum merely located the denoted events in the past. The use of Perfectum with complete and incomplete verbs was expanding, and made the distinction between Aorist and Imperfectum more and more redundant.