By K. Shimizu
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2002). 16, where NADH re-oxidation is critical for regeneration of NAD+ for the metabolism to continue. From research on electron transport systems of microbial metabolism, it may be reasonable to use the term ‘fermentation’ for the processes that have organic compounds as terminal acceptors (Doelle, 1975). However, with this definition, acetic acid bacteria may not be fermentative but respire aerobically. It may be better to extend the definition of fermentation to also include acetic acid fermentation.
This is called photorespiration. 8 Amino acids synthesis Amino acid synthesis is important for the cell synthesis. 19 shows 20 amino acids and their precursors. Note that the chemical structure of amino acids is: As can be seen, amino basis (–NH2 or –NH3+) connects to the α carbon (next to the carboxyl base). An amino acid can produce H+ from COOH, and thus is an acid. Different amino acids come from different structures of R. Let us now consider how these amino acids are synthesized from their precursors.
2), a multi-enzyme complex system, similar to PDH. 5). 1). 5 Acetate metabolism Microorganisms such as E. coli produce acetate from AcCoA by the so-called overflow metabolism, while ethanol is formed from PYR in yeast, etc. by a similar mechanism. 8). 1] converts AceP and ADP to acetate (Ace) and ATP in reversible reactions. Note that the cells may require ATP by the Pta-Ack pathway as the second energy source during high growth rates and anaerobic conditions, and that the Pta-Ack pathway may play an important role in the regulation of AceP, where AceP plays a role in metabolic regulation, as will be explained later in this book.