Bioelectrochemistry IV: Nerve Muscle Function— - download pdf or read online

By Martin Blank (auth.), Bruno Andrea Melandri, Giulio Milazzo, Martin Blank (eds.)

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Extra resources for Bioelectrochemistry IV: Nerve Muscle Function— Bioelectrochemistry, Mechanisms, Bioenergetics, and Control

Example text

4. 3. 1. 2. 4. 1. 2. 5. 6. Introduction .......................................................................................... Calcium Conductance ........................................................................... Kinetics .................................................................................................. Activation .............................................................................................. Inactivation ...........................................................................................

A major recent advance was the development of the patch-clamp technique (HAMILL et al. [7]) which, according to the different configurations, allows whole-cell current recording or single-channel recording (cell-attached, inside--out or outside--out). A great deal of information can be obtained with tracers (22Na, 45Ca) on tissues and now, more widely used, on membrane visicles. Several generations of intracellular Ca2+ sensor have been dealt with: these are Ca 2+-sensitive photoproteins such as aequorin, absorbance dyes such as arsenazo III or antipyrylazo III and the exploding field of fluorescent dyes (quin-2, fura-2 and its derivatives, and Indo-I).

Membrane permeant cAMP derivatives and cAMP injection reproduce the effect while protein kinase inhibitors prevent, and phophatases antagonize the increase in current. Cholera toxin, which ADP-ribosylates the Gs-protein, causes sustained activation of the cyclase and thus increases cAMP and lCa' Whole-cell current shows that neither the reversal U-value for Ca 2+, nor the Udependent kinetics (inactivation, availability) are significantly changed. Gc\fL C'\ cGMP GTP ~ I POE + ! -----------------, 5AMP FIG.

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