By Friedrich Ruttner
Honeybees are as small as flies or as huge as hornets, nesting in nar row cavities of bushes and rocks or within the open on huge limbs of bushes 30 m above flooring. They happen in tropical zones and within the forests of the Ural mountains, they continue to exist seven months of wintry weather or even longer classes of drought and warmth. traditionally, they lived via a prolonged time of stagnation within the tropics from the mid-Tertiary, yet then skilled an explosive evolution in the course of the Pleistocene, re sulting within the conquest of massive new territories and the starting place of 2 dozen subspecies in Apis mellifera. This colossal geographic and ecologic diversification of the genus Apis was once observed by way of a wealthy morphological version, much less at the point of species than on the lowest rank, the subspecies point. edition being solely of a quantitative sort at this primary step of speciation, tradi tional descriptive equipment of systematics proved to be unsatisfactory, and honeybee taxonomy ultimately ended up in a complicated multitude of inadequately defined devices. powerful equipment of morphometric-sta tistical research of honeybee popUlations, established on restricted components, were built over the last many years. basically the numerical characterization of the populations, including the outline of habit, exhibits the real geographic variability and should finish present generalizations and handy stereotypes.
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Extra info for Biogeography and Taxonomy of Honeybees
Fore Wing Width Length Length Tibia Cub. Metatars. 2 Biochemical Variation Mestriner (1969) and Sylvester (1976) started the study of enzyme polymorphism in honeybees. After the investigations were extended to autochthonous strains in Europe and N Africa, valuable progress was achieved in the knowledge of geographic variability of honeybee enzyme patterns. At present, the following polymorphic enzyme systems are known (Sheppard and McPheron 1986): malate dehydrogenase (Mdh-1, three or four alleles), esterase (Est, three alleles), phosphoglucomutase (Pgm, two alleles), malic enzyme (Me, two alleles) and aconitase (Acon-2, two alleles).
Heritability of learning behavior is much lower (Brandes and Moritz 1983) and compares to other behavioral characteristics like honey yield, for example. data) Year n 0-10 % of thelytokous workers 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100 1978 1979 Sum 53 57 110 16 21 37 2 3 5 3 3 6 1 1 2 1 1 2 4 4 8 26 21 47 In contrast to these apparently general multifactorial genetic systems for subspecies characters, one of the most unique peculiarities of mellifera races, thelytokous parthenogenesis in A.
Maxilla : stipital process 5. Heterolateral transfer of pollen 2 3. Apinae and Meliponinae 4 1. Hind tibia: spur 2. Slender form 3. Large perennial colonies 4. Swarming Primitive (parental) character Wing venation Sting Jugal lobe Common characteristics of Apidae: 1. Corbicula (pollen basket) 2. Rastellum (pollen comb) 3. Pollen loading from distal end of tibia. It should be noted, however, that contrary to this clear-cut tabulation "mixed" types occur. Rudimentary tibia spur in the pupal cuticle of Apis; perennial colonies and adult-larvae contact in Bombus; additional dorsal wax glands in Bombus.