Read e-book online Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists PDF

By John Daintith, Sarah Mitchell, Elizabeth Tootill, Derek Gjertsen

This complete compendium brings jointly 2200 scientists who've made very important contributions to the large global of technological know-how. instead of a Who’s-Who variety laundry checklist, this easy source presents crucial biographical details and makes a speciality of clinical fulfillment. certainly, it really is as a lot a booklet approximately technology because it is ready the remarkable scientists who contain the field.

Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists concentrates at the 'traditional pure’ sciences of physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, and the earth sciences. It additionally covers drugs and arithmetic and contains a choice of those that have made very important contributions to engineering, know-how, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

Contains extra Biographies than different Comparably Sized Titles

Written via a famous authority within the box, the simple prose eases readers into subtle options, like summary arithmetic and smooth theoretical physics. The ebook highlights all Nobel Prize winners and renowned scientists similar to Keith Campbell, Ian Wilmut, and John Nash. Compiled in A-Z sort, this paintings is the authoritative quantity of its type.

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Archimedes solved the problem by grasping the concept of relative density. By immersing successively the crown itself and pieces of gold and silver of equal weight in full containers of water and observing the amount of water each displaced, Archimedes was able to show that the crown was indeed not made of pure gold. One of the famous stories associated with Archimedes tells how this occurred to him when he was getting into his bath and observed how the more of his body was immersed the more water overflowed from the bath.

He was more successful with the so-called Auer metal – an alloy consisting mainly of cerium with other lanthanoid elements. It is also called Mischmetal (German: mixed metal) and is used for flints in cigarette lighters. Auger, Pierre Victor (1899–1993) French physicist Auger (ow-zher or ow-ger) was born in Paris and educated there at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, where he obtained his doctorate in 1926. He was later appointed to the staff of the University of Paris and after serving there as professor of physics from 1937 became director of higher education for France in 1945.

He named them praseodymia (“green twin”) and neodymia (“new twin”). Auer was also one of the first to find some use for the rare-earth elements. Gas had been in use as an illuminant since the beginning of the century and, although an improvement on the early oil lamps, it had many disadvantages of its own. It was expensive, hot, smoky, and smelly. Auer realized that it would be better to use the gas to heat a solid that would itself provide light, rather than use the luminosity of the flame. He used a mantle over the flame, impregnated with thorium oxide and a small amount of cerium.

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