Read e-book online Biology of Spiders PDF

By Rainer Foelix

Книга будет полезна для всех тех, кто интересуется или занимается пауками.
This ebook contains the most recent learn whereas dispelling many oft-heard myths and misconceptions that encompass spiders. Of distinctive curiosity are chapters at the constitution and serve as of spider webs and silk, in addition to these on spider venom. a brand new subchapter on tarantulas will charm specially to tarantula keepers and breeders.
The hugely available textual content is supplemented by means of unheard of, top of the range pictures, a lot of them originals, and targeted diagrams. it is going to be of curiosity to arachnologists, entomologists, and zoologists, in addition to to teachers, scholars of biology, and the overall reader fascinated about spiders.

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It is interesting that this opening is never located at the very tip but always subterminally, which is mechanically more stable and also prevents clogging of the tip. , in the stinger of scorpions or the fangs of venomous snakes; fig. 7). 6 (a) The movable cheliceral claw (fang) normally rests between the cheliceral teeth of the basal segment. Note the serrated edge of the fang and the opening of the venom gland (arrow) (Cupiennius, 250 x). (b) Schematic drawing of a chelicera. Arrows indicate the movements of the fang, caused by the action of the flexor and the extensor muscle.

1973). , horses, cows, and sheep), are more sensitive to a black widow spider’s bite than humans, and significant losses of cattle have been reported from such bites. Other animals, such as rats, rabbits, dogs, and goats, seem to be much hardier (Maretic and Habermehl, 1985). It is also noteworthy that bites of the closely related brown widow (Latrodectus geometricus) are not nearly as severe as those of the black widow (Müller, 1993). Symptoms are mild and tend to be restricted to the bite site and surrounding tissues.

1984). Recent studies found that the leg scopulae exert strong friction only when pushed against a substrate, but not when pulled toward the body (Niederegger and Gorb, 2006). This is because the adhesive end feet lie on the inside of the scopulate hair and can only make contact when pushed onto a surface (fig. 15). Similarly, when a spider sits on a vertical wall facing down, gravity pushes against the scopulae of the forelegs, thereby bringing the end feet into contact with the wall and increasing the adhesive forces.

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