New PDF release: The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of

By Cathal J. Nolan

The Age of Wars of faith observed navies, armies, armed service provider businesses, and mercenaries conflict each other and native potentates in lots of lands and alongside quite a few seashores. Wars of faith have been fought in and among the entire significant religions and civilizations, from Europe to China, in Africa, and within the remoted Americas, blending factors of knightly idealism, mercenary greed, and competing claims of divine sanction. This exceptional paintings strains the intense upheavals of the interval in army expertise, competing theologies, and civilizational swap that have been led to via, or impinged upon, army clash. It deals approximately 2,000 discrete yet cross-referenced entries on cultural, army, non secular and political background, in addition to geography, biography, and army literature.

Close to 2,000 entries supply targeted info at the significant occasions, areas, battles, figures, applied sciences, and concepts one needs to recognize to start to make feel of the earlier six centuries of worldwide conflicts. although specially ferocious and severe, the Wars of Reformation and Counter-Reformation fought by way of Europeans from the fifteenth via seventeenth centuries have been hardly ever particular in international or army historical past. The Byzantine Empire, bastion of Christian Orthodoxy, staggered to the tortuous finish of its lengthy clash with the Ottoman Empire, the nice energy of the Sunni Muslim international. The Ottomans, in flip, have been nonetheless engaged in an both historic intra-Muslim battle, among Sunnis and Shi'ites. In India, the Hindu Rajputs and Marathas, and likewise the Sikhs, geared up armies round spiritual groups to throw off the Muslim Yoke (Mughul Empire), and likewise fought opposed to Christian invaders from Europe. As for the remoted Americas, principles of divine kingship sustained via robust priesthoods and non secular struggle additionally prevailed, as exemplified through the Inca and Aztec empires.

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Download PDF by Louis J. Palmer Jr.: Encyclopedia of Capitol Punishment in the United States

By Louis J. Palmer Jr.

This up to date encyclopedia presents prepared details on all facets of capital punishment in the United States. It info nearly each capital punishment choice rendered through the U.S. ultimate court docket via 2006, together with greater than forty situations made up our minds considering e-book of the 1st variation. Entries also are supplied for every preferrred court docket Justice who has ever rendered a capital punishment opinion. Entries on jurisdictions cite present-day dying penalty legislation and judicial constitution nation by means of country, with synopses of universal and exact positive aspects. additionally integrated are entries on major U.S. capital prosecutions; criminal ideas and tactics in capital circumstances; corporations that aid and oppose capital punishment; capital punishment's effect on folks of African, Asian, Hispanic, and local American descent, on girls, and on international nationals; and the tools of execution. crucial evidence also are supplied on capital punishment in additional than two hundred different countries. A wealth of statistical information is located all through.

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