By Hurst, Jeffrey; Wilson, Philip K
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Extra resources for Chocolate and health : chemistry, nutrition and theraphy
Apparently either a new strain of the disease had mutated and was transported into Rondonia or the planting stock that was developed by the Brazilian government’s food and agriculture organization—CEPLAC—had not maintained adequate genetic resistance to new varieties of fungus. At the start of the outbreak, Brazil produced the second-highest amount of cocoa in the world: 400 000 tons of annual bean production. Within seven years, the crop was devastated, and yields fell by over 70%. In 1996, the Brazil cocoa industry, which had been self-suﬃcient in cocoa, was faced with importing cocoa from Ghana in order to meet local chocolate manufacturing demand.
Konlande and J. R. K. Robson, The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods & Nutrition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995, p. 770. E. M. Chatt, Cocoa: Cultivating, Processing, Analysis, Interscience Publishing, New York, 1953, p. 14. S. Jordan, Chocolate Evaluation, Applied Sugar Laboratories, New York, 1934; For citations of specific cacao research of that period, see the chapter ‘‘Nutritive value’’, pp. 104–112, and references on pp. 173–188. E. V. McCollum, A History of Nutrition, Houghton Miﬄin, New York, 1957.
These taxes were originally levied to support prices in the origin countries. While the provisions of taxation still exist without eﬀective price supports, the export taxes are relaxed if the cocoa beans are converted incountry prior to export into products such as chocolate liquor, cocoa butter and cocoa powder. Most of the benefit from the tax relief accrues to the manufacture of the cocoa products, with little to none directly going back to the farmer. 4 Early Problems with Cocoa Production Before discussing cocoa sustainability, it is worthwhile to chronicle some pertinent events in cocoa production that have driven key changes over time.