By Diana Lee-Smith, International Development Research Centre (Canada), Axumite G. Egziabher, Daniel G. Maxwell
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Additional info for Cities Feeding People: An Examination of Urban Agriculture in East Africa
Most respondents were born in regions contiguous with Dar es Salaam and those that are rich agriculturally, such as Morogoro, Mbeya, Kagera, and Kilimanjaro. Other urban farmers come from all over Tanzania. Eight respondents came from neighbouring countries (Table 6). On ethnicity, I divided the respondents into 10 geographic-tribal clusters (Table 7). The largest proportion of urban farmers comes from the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern regions of the country. By coincidence, these are the better developed parts of Tanzania.
2%) includes casual workers who were farmers as well: they represent a large number of the urban poor. By casual labourer, we mean a person engaged in precarious self-employment that is characterized by undesirable instability and insecurity. 2 In the 1988 census data (URT 1989), the following occupations were recognized: Legislators, Administrators and Managers, Professionals, Technicians and Teachers, Clerks, Service and Shop Sales, Cultivators, Mixed Farming, Agricultural Workers, Craftsmen and Machine Operators, Small-scale Traders and Labourers, Other Workers, and Not Employed.
The sample of 260 urban farmers comprised 44% men and 56% women (see Table 4). About 43% of the sample were leaders of 10 cell-house units according to households organizational structure in both rural and urban Tanzania. Because of this structure, I had to approach the farmers through these 10 cell leaders. Results The following sections discuss the characteristics of the urban farmers in the sample and their perceptions of who are the urban farmers and who benefits from UA. The implications of these data highlight three assumptions that: • Urban farmers are not socially marginal, • UA has increased in Dar es Salaam and the way it operates can be explained by the logic of survival, and • UA makes a significant contribution to the well-being of many Dar es Salaam residents.