By S. Mahajan, L. C. Kimerling
The advance of digital fabrics and especially advances in semiconductor expertise have performed a relevant function within the electronics revolution by way of permitting the construction of more and more reasonable and strong computing gear and complicated telecommunications units. This Concise Encyclopedia, which includes correct articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of fabrics technology and Engineering in addition to newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the fabrics facets of semiconductors and the applied sciences vital in solid-state electronics. progress of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers are mentioned within the quantity and insurance is integrated of defects and their results on equipment habit. Metallization and passivation matters also are coated. Over a hundred alphabetically prepared articles, written through international specialists within the box, are every one meant to function the 1st resource of knowledge on a selected element of digital fabrics. the quantity is broadly illustrated with images, diagrams and tables. A bibliography is supplied on the finish of every article to steer the reader to fresh literature. A complete method of cross-references, a three-level topic index and an alphabetical record of articles are integrated to assist readers within the abstraction of data
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Additional info for Concise Encyclopedia of Semiconducting Materials & Related Technologies
1. Atomic Properties Influencing Structure Structure maps are usually constructed by choosing coordinates which are based on those physical factors which are felt to be important in controlhng structural stabihty. The following four factors have been recognized as being particularly important: the relative size of the constituent atoms, their electronegativity difference, the average number of valence electrons per atom and the angular character of the orbitals. 7 Atomic Size The importance of the relative size of the constituent atoms is most easily demonstrated by considering the relative stability of ionic compounds with the CsCl, NaCl or ZnS (zinc blende) structure types.
There are, however, methods of accounting for the order dependence of the energy of formation, as follows. (c) Models for the ordering energy. By the use of second-order perturbation theory the energy can be expanded with respect to the totahy disordered state to obtain effective pair potentials that can be used to calculate the energies of competing ordered states on a given basis lattice. This procedure has long been used for simple metal alloys and more recently for transition-metal alloys. In the latter case, it has been found that the «th-neighbor pair potentials oscillate in sign with increasing value of the average d band filling.
18: 6439-49 Watson R E, Bennett L Η 1978b A Mulhken electronegativity scale and the structural stability of simple compounds. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 39: 1235-42 Watson R E, Bennett L H 1981 Optimized prediction for heats of formation of transition metal alloys. CALPHAD: Comput. Coupling Phase Diagrams Thermochem. 5: 2 5 ^ 0 Wigner Ε Ρ, Seitz F 1933 On the constitution of metallic sodium. Phys. Rev. 43: 80Φ-10 Williams A R, Gelatt C D Jr, Moruzzi V L 1982 Microscopic basis of Miedema's theory of alloy formation: a reply.