Download e-book for iPad: Deciphering Growth by J.-C. Carel, Paul A. Kelly

By J.-C. Carel, Paul A. Kelly

In mammals, the foremost elements concerned about the legislation of physique development are identified: insulin-like progress elements (IGF) are key regulators of somatic development. development hormone (GH), secreted by way of the pituitary gland, without delay regulates circulating degrees of IGF-I, that is the foremost coordinator of spatio-temporal progress of the organism. In people, progress is much more complicated, related to a couple of particular features now not present in different species. those comprise fast intrauterine development, deceleration simply after beginning, a mid-childhood development spurt, a moment deceleration earlier than puberty, a teenager development spurt, and eventually complete statural development, that's obvious a bit of later. The mixed wisdom in regards to the endocrine and paracrine points of progress have resulted in the creation of therapy regimens, ideal in GH-deficient youngsters. notwithstanding, measurement is determined by the combo of a couple of genetic components, and there stay numerous points of this complicated procedure nonetheless poorly understood.

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Subjects with the fetal overgrowth Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome had over-expression of IGF-2 in association with genetic defects in the IGF2 gene (Morison et al. 1996). As yet, there have been no reported human cases with severe mutations of the IGF2R gene, but variable expression of this gene has been reported in relation to size at birth (Wutz et al. 1998). In population studies, cord blood measurements of IGF-1, IGF-2 and insulin have been used as surrogate measures of the activity of these peptides in regulating fetal growth.

2; Table 1). It has been inferred that among apes,- where a dominant male controls reproductive access to a harem primarily on the basis of his larger size - testicular volume and, by implication, spermatogenic capacity become less important variables. On the other hand, in multi-male mating societies, dominant size is of lesser significance in access to females, especially when several males may mate with a single female when she is in oestrus. In this situation, so-called “sperm wars” favor the male with the highest number of functional spermatozoa.

Diabetologia 43: 1201-1202. Masuda K, Osada H, Iitsuka Y, Seki K, Sekiya S (2002) Positive association of maternal G protein beta3 subunit 825T allele with reduced head circumference at birth. Pediatr Res 52: 687-691. Mitchell SM, Hattersley AT, Knight B, Turner T, Metcalf BS, Voss LD, Davies D, McCarthy A, Wilkin TJ, Smith GD, Ben-Shlomo Y, Frayling TM (2004) Lack of support for a role of the insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats minisatellite (INS-VNTR) locus in fetal growth or type 2 diabetes-related intermediate traits in United Kingdom populations.

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