By Clive Holes
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Additional info for Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia, Vol. II: Ethnographic Texts (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section One, Near and Middle E)
G. yisQal ‘he asks’ (alongside the dialect form ysAyil). l and r have velarised allophones in some words, especially when a labial, and xxx language notes even more commonly when a labial and g are present. g. [gÚAbÚIlÚ] ‘before’, [gÚAlÚbÚ] ‘heart’, [gÚumÚArÚ] ‘moon’, [rÚAbÚIlÚ] ‘rubber’ [rÚAmÚIlÚ] ‘sand’. Vowels: Positional restrictions i occurs to the exclusion of a in open, non-final syllables, except in the contiguity of guttural consonants, x, J, H, P, h, or where the following consonant is l, n or r when at the same time the vowel of the following syllable is a or A2.
In Marriage text 1, ahli ‘my family’ (S19-7, 18) rather than hali, and axBar ‘green’ (S19-19) rather than xaFar (lack of ghawa-syndrome in both cases); occasional verb forms such as xiVabOni (S19-6) rather than xVibOni (non-A syllable structure rules); and in the lexical domain, the startling use of the modal particle aTarAt ‘perhaps, it would seem that’ (S19-9) which is a stigmatised lexical marker of B rural speech in the form Pafar or PafarAt4. g. g. nagPad (S19-26, 28) (but also tigPad (S19-32) the normal A Man¸man form), and an ss verb form PirfEt ‘I knew’ (S1912).
Both speakers 18 and 19 have a more forward, lip-spread realisation of A, compared with the very backed and rounded realisation typical of Mu¥arraq (and in particular of its women). 4 So much so that the B community is sometimes jokingly referred to by A speakers as awlAd il-Pafar ‘the boys who say Pafar’. xlvi language notes Speakers 34 and 35: both female; R¸s Rumm¸n, Man¸ma (m2/5): Childhood text 11 R¸s Rumm¸n is an entirely B community of former fishermen, stonecutters and seafarers east of the centre of Man¸ma, directly opposite Mu¥arraq at the end of the causeway that first linked the two.