By Alexei Solovchenko
Optical screening of over the top and possibly destructive sunlight radiation is a crucial photoprotective mechanism, although it has got less awareness compared to different structures combating photooxidative harm to photoautotrophic organisms. This photoprotection within the kind of screening seems to be particularly very important for juvenile and senescing vegetation in addition to less than environmental stresses—i.e. in occasions the place the potency of enzymatic ROS removal, DNA fix and different ‘classical’ photoprotective platforms may be impaired. This publication represents an try to enhance an necessary view of optical screening-based photoprotection in microalgae and better vegetation. in the direction of this finish, the most important teams of pigments concerned about the screening of ultraviolet and visual elements of sunlight radiation in microalgae and better crops, and the styles in their accumulation and distribution inside of plant cells and tissues, are defined. designated realization is paid to the manifestations of screening pigment accumulation within the optical spectra of vegetation. it's also validated that figuring out those results and their relationships to screening pigments’ make-up and spectroscopy in crops presents worthwhile insights into the nation of vegetation’ long term photoacclimation, in addition to abundant possibilities for the non-destructive quantification of screening pigments and the overview of the potency of photoprotection delivering by means of those pigments in situ.
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Optical screening of over the top and most likely damaging sunlight radiation is a vital photoprotective mechanism, even though it has got less recognition compared to different structures fighting photooxidative harm to photoautotrophic organisms. This photoprotection within the kind of screening seems to be particularly very important for juvenile and senescing crops in addition to lower than environmental stresses—i.
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Extra info for Photoprotection in Plants: Optical Screening-based Mechanisms
Phytochem Anal 9:124–127 Figueiredo P, George F, Tatsuzawa F, Toki K, Saito N, Brouillard R (1999) New features of intramolecular copigmentation byacylated anthocyanins. Phytochemistry 51:125–132 References 27 Frank H, Cogdell R (1996) Carotenoids in photosynthesis. Photochem Photobiol 63:257–264 Garcia-Pichel F, Castenholz R (1993) Occurrence of UV-absorbing, mycosporine-like compounds among cyanobacterial isolates and an estimate of their screening capacity. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:163–169 Garcia-Pichel F, Sherry N, Castenholz R (1992) Evidence for an ultraviolet sunscreen role of the extracellular pigment scytonemin in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Chiorogloeopsis sp.
These compounds greatly differ in terms of their biosynthetic origin and chemical structure, but all of them possess pronounced absorption bands with high extinction coefficients in the UV and/or visible parts of the spectrum (Fig. 10). Different taxa of photoautotrophic organisms differ in their ability to synthesize various groups of photoprotective screening pigments (Fig. 11). Nevertheless, the combinations of screening compounds simultaneously present in the cells and tissues of many algae and plants could efficiently attenuate radiation in the very broad spectral band extending from the UV region to the blue-green and even to the yellow-orange region of the visible part of the spectrum (Fig.
In higher plants, carotenoids can be synthesized in the dark, but their quantity and composition are controlled by blue-light and UV receptors (Hirschberg 2001; Ro¨mer and Fraser 2005; Tanaka et al. 2008; Ye et al. 2009). Carotenoids are divided, according to their substituent composition, into two groups: carotenes, simple hydrocarbon compounds, and xanthophylls containing oxygen atoms within hydroxy, epoxy, or keto groups (Figs. 7). The carotenoids of most plant species are represented by carotenes and xanthophylls with characteristic three-headed absorption maxima in the blue part of the spectrum, 400–480 nm (Britton 1995b; Goodwin 1961; Young 1993).